Category Archives: Publications

How to get more pixels when you export Powerpoint slides to graphic files

Microsoft, in their wisdom, cripple PowerPoint’s abilities to export slides to high resolution graphic files, and by default they compress images imported to a mere 220 pixels per inch or less. Here are a couple of tricks to improve things.

1. Tell PowerPoint not to automatically compress imported images.

Open PowerPoint.On the File menu choose Options. In the options dialog choose Advanced. In the right panel under Image Size and Quality select Do not compress images in file.

This setting will stay with the file, but you will need to reapply it for new files where you want the highest resolution in your images. There is probably a way to make this the default… stay tuned.

2. Change the export resolution for PowerPoint slides

This step involves editing the registry. The registry is a database maintained by the system of all the relevant settings that allow programs to work. If you muck up the registry, things might not work afterwards. If you are unsure, get expert assistance. That said, it isn’t difficult if you follow the instructions here: 

Since this change is done in the registry, it will be in operation whenever you use PowerPoint from then on. Note that if you upgrade to a new powerpoint, the registry change may not be copied to the new version so you may need to repeat the process after each version upgrade.

Note that no matter how high you set the resolution in the registry PowerPoint will not export slides as image files with sides greater than 3072 pixels – that is usually enough, but may not be for some applications. The next section has an approach that gets around this limitation.

3. Alternative — export by printing to a PDF file

This is less convenient but does not need changes in the registry. Print the slide (or slides) using a PDF writer. WIth Adobe’s PDF writer you can set a high resolution (the default is to compress large images to 150 ppi). In the print dialog with Adobe PDF selected choose Properties

In the Document properties dialog, choose a setting with high dpi settings such as Press quality:

Or you can edit one of the other settings and change the images compression properties to whatever resolution you want.

If you don’t have adobe PDF writer, there are lots of alternative free programs such as Foxit PDF, or CutePDF Writer which can give high quality output.

Once you have the slide(s) saved as a PDF file containing embedded high resolution images you can save them as image files from Acrobat (paid version) or open them using programs such as (expensive) Adobe photoshop or Adobe Illustrator, or (free, open source programs) GIMP (sim to photoshop) or Inkscape (sim to Illustrator), from where you can export to whatever graphic file format you require.


Loading sets of images into powerpoint slides

Sometimes one may want to generate a PowerPoint slide with a set of images – for example a set of micrograph images to discuss with your colleagues (or a lovely set of your holiday photos to make your friends jealous). You can do this by manually adding each image, one by one, then resizing, repositioning, formatting …. , but there is a much quicker way. Here is a guide to automating the process. Continue reading

Fluorescence Images: Merging and optimising

If you are using fluorescence microscopy you may need to merge images taken with different filter sets – for example DAPI to pick out nuclei together with fluorescent staining with or or more specific antibodies. Commonly you will want to merge these images into a composite. Image optimisation and merging can be achieved easily using the free Fiji package with ImageJ. Continue reading

Uterine flushing proteome of the tammar wallaby

Uterine flushing proteome of the tammar wallaby after reactivatiCynthia Martin’s manuscript “Uterine flushing proteome of the tammar wallaby after reactivation from diapause.” was just accepted by the international journal Reproduction. The pre-press manuscript is available at The work is a collaboration between Cynthia, Chin Seng Ang, a proteomics specialist at Bio21, and her supervisors Geoff, David and Marilyn. This is the first study to investigate changes in uterine secretion profiles using extremely sensitive, cutting-edge LC-MS/MS approaches, and highlights some of the factors that may be involved in the regulation of embryonic diapause.

Pubmed Record:

New Publication: Uterine morphology …

Laird-2016-Uterine morphology during diapause and early pregnancy in the tammar wallaby-JAnat_Page_01-600Recently published is the result of a collaboration between our laboratory, our past PhD student Cyrma Hearn and Melanie Laird at the University of Sydney,  These findings demonstrate that diapause, like pregnancy, is under unilateral endocrine control in the tammar, and that preparation for and maintenance of diapause requires substantial changes to uterine endometrial cell ultrastructure and activity.

Laird-2016-Uterine morphology during diapause and early pregnancy in the tammar wallaby-JAnat-fig2-600

NEW PAPER: Rewinding the process of mammalian extinction.

ZooBiol2016Marilyn Renfree among a group of concerned scientists convened a multidisciplinary meeting under the name “Conservation by Cellular Technologies.” The outcome of this meeting was a proposed road map that, if successfully implemented, would ultimately lead to a self-sustaining population of an extremely endangered species are outlined here. This new paper provides an overview of these ideas.

Continue reading

Effects of nutritional manipulation on body composition in the developing marsupial, Macropus eugenii

Hot off the press:

When 60-day-old tammar wallaby pouch young (Macropus eugenii) are fostered to mothers at 120 days of lactation, their growth, developmental rate and maturation of their GH/IGF axes are markedly accelerated. To determine the effect of fostering on energy intake, body composition and fat accretion, we first measured total body fat and lean mass in these young. Next, we mimicked the triglyceride oleic and palmitic acid composition of 120-day milk by supplementing 60 day young with these fatty acids and comparing their growth with that of growth accelerated young. There was no difference in the weight or growth axis maturation of supplemented young but there was significantly more body fat in these and in the growth-accelerated fostered young than in controls. We conclude that the accelerated growth and GH/IGF axis maturation observed previously in fostered young is most likely due to increased milk consumption and earlier access to specific nutrients.


New Publication with associated Journal Cover Page


The cover image, by Marilyn B. Renfree et al., is based on the Advanced Review The Mammalian Blastocyst, DOI: 10.1002/wdev.220. Marilyn B. Renfree et al. would also like to credit and thank fellow colleague, Geoff Shaw, for his design contribution

Another publication has been distinguished by use of our cover page design.

Frankenberg SR, de Barros FRO, Rossant J and Renfree MB (2016) The mammalian blastocyst. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Developmental Biology.

The full paper is available online at



Paper accepted: FOXA1 and SOX9 expression in the developing wallaby reproductive system

Just accepted in Sexual Development (10 June 2015):

FOXA1 and SOX9 expression in the developing urogenital sinus of the
tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii)

by Melissa Gamat, Keng Chew, Geoff Shaw & Marilyn Renfree.

Developing prostate tissue

Developing prostate tissue in a male wallaby reproductive tract

The mammalian prostate is a compact structure in humans but multi-lobed in mice. In humans and mice, FOXA1 and SOX9 play pivotal roles in prostate morphogenesis but few other species have been examined. We examined FOXA1 and SOX9 in the marsupial tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii which has a segmented prostate more similar to human than to mouse. In males, prostatic budding in the urogenital epithelium (UGE) was initiated by day 24 postpartum (pp) but in the female the UGE remained smooth and had begun forming the marsupial vaginal structures. FOXA1 was up-regulated in the male urogenital sinus (UGS) by day 51 pp, whilst in the female UGS FOXA1 remained basal. FOXA1 was localised in the UGE in both sexes between day 20-80 pp. SOX9 was up-regulated in the male UGS at day 21-30 pp and remained high until day 51-60 pp. SOX9 protein was localised in the distal tips of prostatic buds which were highly proliferative. The sustained up-regulation of the transcription factors SOX9 and FOXA1 after the initial peak and fall of androgen levels suggest that in the tammar, as in other mammals, these factors are required to sustain prostate differentiation, development and proliferation as androgen levels return to basal levels.

Update: The paper is now published and indexed in PUBMED at and the full citation is:

Gamat, M., Chew, K. Y., Shaw, G. and Renfree, M. B. (2015) FOXA1 and SOX9 Expression in the Developing Urogenital Sinus of the Tammar Wallaby (Macropus eugenii). Sex Dev 9: 216-228